Wednesday, 24 April 2019

Direct and indirect speech

Definition of indirect Speech:

Indirect speech is also known as reported speech, indirect narration. When you report someone else’s statement in your own words without any change in the meaning of sentence, it is called indirect speech or indirect narration.
Example:
Direct Speech: He says, “I am intelligent in the whole class”
Indirect Speech: He says that he is intelligent in the whole class.

Definition of Direct Speech:

Direct speech repeats the exact word of speaker in the same for without any changing in reported speech. But in the reporting speech you have to change “say to said” because you are telling it later. The communication has now been part of past.
She says, “What time will you be home?
She said, “What time will you be home?
He told, “I want to go through train”

 Changes:


  • Following changes has been occurred in the direct speech to indirect speech.
  • Comma and inverted comma removed
  •    The first part of the statement is called reporting speech and second one is reported speech.
  •    The verb of the reporting speech is called reporting verb and the verb of the reported speech is called reported verb
  • First person pronouns (I, We) in reported speech always changed according to the subject of the reported speech.
  • Second person pronouns (you, Your)  in reported speech are always changed  according to the object of the reported speech
  • Third person pronouns (He, She, It, they and name) of reported speech are never changed.

Tense Changes:

·         Present Simple to Past Simple
·         Present continue to past continue
·         Present perfect to Past perfect
·         Past simple to Past perfect tense
·         Will (Future Tense) To Would
·         Can to Could
·         Shall to should
·         Have to – Had to
·         Imperative to Infinite
·         Important Word Changes:
·         This to That
·         These to Those
·         Here to There
·         Now to Then
·         Sir to Respectfully
·         Madam To Respectfully
·         Today to That Day
·         Yesterday to Previous Day
·         Tomorrow to Following day or Next Day
·         Tonight to That Night
·         Good morning, Good evening, Good day to Greeted

Examples:Present and future Tense

He says, "I am boy."
He says that he is boy.
They say, "we wept."
They say that we wept
You will say, "I am reading my Lessons."
You will say that you are reading your lesson.
I say. "I shall not play."
I say that  I shall not play.
He says, "She was list."
He says that she was lost.



Examples:Past Tense

I said, "I like you."
I told him that I liked him.
I said, "I have not taken your books."
I told that I have not taken your books
I said to him, "I can't help  you."
I told him that I could not help him
He said to me, "I have been waiting for you."
He said to me that he has been waiting for me.
He said, "The gate is closed at night."
He said that The gate was closed at night.
He said, "It may rain today."
He said that it might rain that day.
You said to me, "I shall give you this book."
You told me that you would  give me that book.
She said, "It will be raining tomorrow."
She told that it would be raining the next day.
He said, "I shall come here."
He told that he would go there.
He said, " You have not been promoted."
He told me that I had not been promoted.
You said to him, "Your father is not at home now."
You told him that his father was not at home then.
He said, "I think that he does not like me."
He said that he thought that he did to like him.
You said, "They may be leaving just now,"
You said that They might be leaving just then.
The teacher said, "Death is great  leveller."
The teacher said that Death is great leveller.
Father said, "My son, Honesty is the best policy.
Father told his son that honesty is the best policy.

Examples:Past Perfect Tense

I said to him, "I went to college yesterday."
I told him that I had gone to college the previous day.
The writer said, " The young seagull did not fly with his parents.
The writer told that The young seagull had not flown with his parents.
He said, "The gate was closed at night."
He said, "The gate was closed at night."
He said that the gate had been closed at night.
He said, "It was raining yesterday."
He said that it had been raining the last day.
He said, " The gate was being closed at night."
He said that the gate was being closed at night.
He said, "The sun had set."
He said that the sun had set.
He said, "I had been sleeping for two hours."
He said that he had been sleeping for two hours.

Examples: Interrogative sentence

I said to him, "Where is your father?"
I asked him where his father was.
I said to him, Where was your father?"
I asked  him where his father had been.
He said to me, "When do you go to college?"
He asked me where I had gone the previous day.
He said to me," How will you do it?"
He asked me how I would do it.
I said to him, "Where have you put my book?"
I asked him where he had put my book.
You said to him, " How can you deceive me?"
You asked him how he could deceive you.
The poet said, "How many are you, little girl?"
The poet asked the little girl how many they were.







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